Low blood sugar: Warning indicators, methods to deal with and when to name the physician

Low blood sugar: Warning signs, ways to treat and when to call the doctor

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In accordance with the Facilities for Illness Management and Prevention’s 2020 Nationwide Diabetes Statistics Report, 34 million folks dwelling in the USA had diabetes in 2018 — and amazingly, 21% of adults with diabetes didn’t even know they’d it. The scariest half is that, if left untreated, diabetes could be lethal — and, the truth is, it was the seventh main reason for loss of life within the yr 2017. 

And whereas usually related to excessive blood sugar (aka hyperglycemia), diabetic people also can expertise hypoglycemia, or low blood sugar, alongside its personal bevy of issues — together with extra extreme and/or long-term results like seizures, lack of consciousness, dementia and even loss of life. Additional, in accordance with the Mayo Clinic, hypoglycemia also can trigger low blood sugar in people with out diabetes attributable to quite a lot of circumstances and medicines.

So, for sure, it is essential to take care of wholesome blood sugar ranges. However how is that this accomplished, particularly if you do not know the very first thing about blood sugar?

What’s regular blood sugar?

Once we eat, glucose (aka blood sugar) — which is our physique’s major supply of power — enters our bloodstream from our meals. Then our pancreas secretes a hormone known as insulin in simply the correct quantity to assist the glucose go from the bloodstream to our physique’s numerous cells for use as power. This course of normally retains the glucose in our bloodstream in a wholesome vary, being neither too excessive, nor too low. 

This vary is measured in milligrams of blood glucose per deciliter, or mg/dL. Dr. Saleh Aldasouqi, Chief of Endocrinology at Michigan State College, explains to CNET: “Regular blood sugar is outlined as wherever from 70 to 110 mg/dL inside a wholesome physiology, as an individual with out diabetes or different associated recognized situation. Sugar beneath 70 is mostly thought-about low, and above 110 is taken into account excessive (relying on the time because the particular person’s final meal).”

Indicators of low blood sugar 

With hypoglycemia, the blood sugar falls beneath the conventional, wholesome ranges talked about earlier, which might happen for quite a lot of causes.

“Though some folks with blood sugar issues might not expertise signs,” Dr. Aldasouqi continued, “there are some key issues to look out for. For these with low blood sugar, somebody may need signs like anxiousness, sweating, elevated coronary heart charge, confusion, and will go into what is known as ‘a hypoglycemic coma’… The time period ‘diabetic coma’ can be utilized by some.”

Different signs of low blood sugar might embody:

  • Fatigue
  • Shakiness
  • Starvation
  • Irritability
  • Pale pores and skin
  • Tingling or numb lips, tongue or cheek
  • Blurry imaginative and prescient

What causes low blood sugar?

Hypoglycemia usually happens in individuals who’ve been recognized with diabetes. Issues with low blood sugar could be skilled with both Kind 1 or Kind 2 diabetes.

Kind 1 

Kind 1 diabetes occurs when the physique’s immune system begins preventing the pancreatic cells that make insulin. Consequently, the pancreas stops making insulin, and the glucose in your bloodstream cannot get into the mandatory cells — so your blood sugar stage rises to new heights. This normally happens in kids and younger adults, and so they normally must take insulin daily for the rest of their lives. 


Kind 1 diabetes normally happens in kids and younger adults, and they’re going to almost definitely must take insulin daily. 

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Kind 2

One of these diabetes happens when your blood glucose is simply too excessive and your physique both does not make ample insulin, or does not work nicely with the insulin it does make. Your blood sugar ranges stay too excessive in your bloodstream, and there is not sufficient getting moved into your cells. Kind 2 diabetes is extra prevalent in center and outdated age, however you may get it anytime, together with throughout childhood. 

Different causes of low blood sugar

Whereas low blood sugar is usually related to diabetes, it can be affected by different components. In accordance with Dr. Danine Fruge, Medical Director of the Pritikin Longevity Middle in Miami, Florida, the causes of blood sugar issues can embody not solely “diabetes, prediabetes (a situation the place the blood sugar is excessive, however not but excessive sufficient to be recognized as diabetes), reactive hypoglycemia (when your physique produces extreme insulin after a meal) or different well being points, but additionally by not consuming sufficient, taking an excessive amount of insulin and even taking sure diabetes medicines.”

Different medicines also can trigger hypoglycemia, like quinine, or Qualaquin, which is used to deal with malaria, or numerous medicines for kidney failure. Exercising greater than traditional also can trigger it, particularly whereas taking such medicines. 

Another potential causes for low blood sugar embody:

  • Heavy consuming with out consuming
  • Consuming with out ingesting sufficient carbohydrates
  • Consuming fewer carbs than traditional with out decreasing insulin quantities, or improper balancing of liquid/stable carbs and timing of insulin
  • Hormone deficiencies attributable to adrenal or pituitary tumor problems, or in kids with out ample progress hormone
  • Lengthy-term hunger, reminiscent of that which might happen with anorexia nervosa
  • Severe sickness like hepatitis, kidney problems and liver illness
  • Pancreatic tumors (and another sorts of tumors) that make the physique secrete an excessive amount of insulin

Hypoglycemia unawareness

It’s possible you’ll “really feel unhealthy and never know why,” in accordance with Dr. Fruge, whether or not you are experiencing low or excessive blood sugar. She suggests {that a} glucose finger stick take a look at can “provide you with a sign” as to what the issue is, however she stresses that “it is essential to verify with a glucose take a look at. An HbA1c blood take a look at will inform you when you’ve got prediabetes or diabetes.”

When the physique provides no warning indicators within the type of signs, hypoglycemia can grow to be very harmful. For these with diabetes or others who persistently expertise hypoglycemia unawareness, therapy modification could also be so as, in addition to blood glucose consciousness coaching. 

What to do when you suppose you have got low blood sugar

Act rapidly to deal with the state of affairs

Should you suspect you have got low blood sugar, Dr. Fruge recommends rapidly treating the state of affairs, which she says ought to embody “maintaining a healthy diet meals reminiscent of advanced carbohydrates, beans or fruit.” 

“On the Pritikin Longevity Middle we serve a cup of fruit with a cup of veggies to stop a spike in insulin, which might generally result in a later drop in blood sugar once more,” she explains. “Adjusting your diabetes medicine as prescribed by your doctor may additionally be essential. It is essential to retest your blood sugar 20 minutes after consuming to verify it has improved.”


Preserve a fast-acting carbohydrate snack or two readily available in case your blood sugar dips beneath wholesome ranges.

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Preserve a fast-acting carb or two readily available

The American Diabetes Affiliation means that these susceptible to low blood sugar be certain to all the time have a small juice field, glucose tablets or one thing related with them always simply in case their blood sugar ranges drop beneath regular. A very good rule of thumb to comply with is the 15:15 Rule, which instructs the particular person with falling blood sugar ranges to eat 15 grams of carbohydrates each quarter-hour, then take a look at to see if their blood sugar continues to be beneath 70 mg/dL — then have one other 15 gram serving and repeat till regular.

The American Diabetes Affiliation additionally recommends for these susceptible to hypoglycemia that consuming small meals all through the day will help blood sugar ranges stay constant and stop dips. 

Keep in good communication together with your physician

Be sure you preserve your physician knowledgeable as to any modifications you propose to make to your consuming, train, or medicine schedules. This will help you’re employed collectively to ensure your blood sugar ranges stay as persistently regular as attainable.

When it is time to name a health care provider

If any of the signs talked about have begun to affect your life, reminiscent of fatigue so extreme you possibly can’t keep awake by the day, it is a good suggestion to seek the advice of your doctor. Dr. Fruge warns that “unstable blood sugar ranges might put you at greater danger of coronary heart illness and stroke and it’s a purple flag for critical well being points” — so blood sugar points needs to be taken severely.

You must also see a health care provider when you’re experiencing signs of hypoglycemia and have not been recognized with diabetes or some other underlying situation. 

Should you do have diabetes and your hypoglycemia is not responding to the therapies described above, that is one other good cue to name your well being care supplier. 

If testing reveals you have got Kind 1 diabetes, you will must proceed to check your blood sugar ranges as usually as instructed by your doctor, take insulin usually and take part in common train. This will imply you will want a brand new glucose monitoring system, so ask your physician what they advocate. Should you’re recognized with Kind 2 diabetes, you will almost definitely must do the identical as for Kind 1, in addition to working with well being care professionals to make way of life modifications reminiscent of enhancing vitamin and planning exercises. Medicine could also be essential as nicely.


Wholesome consuming, common train and different way of life modifications will help alleviate signs and probably even reverse prediabetes.

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Sustaining a wholesome consuming and train routine, monitoring blood sugar ranges as/if instructed, taking medicines as prescribed, and above all, protecting your physician usually knowledgeable on any modifications to your routines, is crucial to staying wholesome general and protecting low blood sugar at bay.

The data contained on this article is for instructional and informational functions solely and isn’t meant as well being or medical recommendation. All the time seek the advice of a doctor or different certified well being supplier concerning any questions you will have a few medical situation or well being goals.

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